Opposing effects of soluble factors present at mucosal sites of HIV exposure on virus transmission and the establishment of infection. As illustrated, soluble factors at mucosal sites can mediate beneficial effects by exerting direct antiviral activity or reducing local inflammation; and/or can mediate detrimental effects by enhancing virus transmission, directly augmenting HIV infection of cells, recruiting CD4+ target cells or promoting local immune activation/increasing HIV replication. Vaccines and microbicides should be designed to tip the balance in favour of the beneficial effects.
Borrow et al. Retrovirology 2010 7:84 doi:10.1186/1742-4690-7-84