Email updates

Keep up to date with the latest news and content from Retrovirology and BioMed Central.

This article is part of the supplement: Abstracts from the 17th International Symposium on HIV and Emerging Infectious Diseases (ISHEID)

Open Access Poster presentation

Molecular epidemiology and drug resistance prevalence of strains from newly diagnosed HIV-1 patients in Northern Greece during 2009-2010

Zoe Antoniadou, Ioanna Kousiappa*, Johana Hezka, Lemonia Skoura, Simeon Metallidis, Pavlos Nikolaidis, Nicolaos Malisiovas and Leondios G Kostrikis

Author Affiliations

University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus

For all author emails, please log on.

Retrovirology 2012, 9(Suppl 1):P30  doi:10.1186/1742-4690-9-S1-P30


The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://www.retrovirology.com/content/9/S1/P30


Published:25 May 2012

© 2012 Antoniadou et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Introduction

As part of a continuing effort to monitor the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in northern Greece, in this study we determined the genetic diversity and the prevalence of drug resistance transmission among HIV-1 strains isolated from 94 newly-diagnosed untreated consenting patients in the period 2009 to 2010.

Materials and methods

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC’s) and plasma were collected from the patients at the AIDS National Reference Laboratory of Northern Greece. Plasma RNA encoding partial pol(protease and reverse transcriptase) was amplified using TRUGENE HIV-1 genotyping assay (Siemens). Antiretroviral drug resistance prevalence was estimated by using the HIVseq program (HIV Drug Resistance Database, Stanford University). PBMC’s DNA encoding partial env(gp120) V3-loop region was amplified by nested PCR and sequenced using an in-house tropism assay at the Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus. Phylogenetic analysis was performed and trees were constructed for each region by using neighbor-joining with Kimura two-parameter method by means of MEGA v5.0 software.

Results

The media age of patients is 32 years with the percentage of male infection at 89.4%. The main risk groups were homosexual contact (73.4%) and heterosexual contact (17.0%). The phylogenetic analysis indicated B and A1 as the dominant subtypes, 47.8% and 41,5% respectively, followed by subtype C, CRF02_AG (3,2% each), CRF04_cpx (2,1%) and subtypes F1 and G (1,1% each). Twenty-one clusters showed epidemiologically linked HIV-1 patients. Resistance mutations to protease inhibitors were found in three individuals, while high resistance associated mutations to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI’s/NNRTI’s) were shown in sixteen patients. Tropism testing indicated most of the HIV-1 strains as R5-tropic (96%).

Conclusions

These newly found data demonstrate a heterogeneous epidemiological status of HIV-1 in northern Greece during 2009-2010, with subtype B and A1 being the dominant subtypes in relation to the other subtypes. The prevalence of antiretroviral resistance mutations is high among the newly diagnosed untreated patients (17%) in comparison with other European countries (10%).